Early & Middle Bronze Age

Early & Middle Bronze Age

Early & Middle Bronze Age

The Early Bronze Age is approximately the 3rd millennium BCE and the Middle Bronze Age from 2,000 to 1,500 BCE. This is a basic model and does depend on what chronology is being applied. This is a debate with great complexity and will not be entered into here.

From the scant pictorial and textual evidence we have, the first organised battles in history were between the armies of the city-states of Sumer and Syria in what was then ancient Mesopotamia. Throughout the Early Bronze Age in the third millennium BCE, City-States such as Uruk, Ur, Kish, Eridu, Umma and Lagash in Sumer, and Mari and Ebla in Syria continually fought each other to establish hegemony in the region. From the period c.2700 BCE and later, the Sumerians under King Mebaragesi fought wars with neighbouring Elam for control of southern Sumer. The first war between Lagash and Umma in c.2250 BCE (new chronology) was recorded on the Stele of Vultures, and which shows Eannatum of Lagash leading a phalanx of shielded, helmeted warriors armed with long spears, trampling his enemies. Next came King Lugalzagesi of Umma who  defeated Lagash and then Uruk  to become the  first King to unify southern Sumer. However, it  is Sargon the Great of Akkad who is credited with creating the first real empire beyond just Sumer. Subsequent Akkadian kings included Naram-Sin who campaigned in the highland regions against tribes such as the Lullubi and Guti. After his reign, weaker rulers failed to prevent persistent incursions by the Guti, who eventually brought down the Akkadian Empire at the end of the Early Bronze Age. There was a short period of Gutian rule until stability was briefly re-established by the 3rd Dynasty of Ur  at the start of the Middle Bronze Age. However, by this time, the Amorite nomads, who had been warring with and  gradually assimilating with the city-states of Sumer and Syria for centuries, now completely took control of the region, settled down and established kingdoms. The Old Babylonian Kingdom of Hammurabi and the Old Assyrian Kingdom of Shamsi-Adad are from this period, and which lasted until the end of the Middle Bronze Age with the rise of the Hittites, Kassites, the New Kingdom Egyptians and the Hurrians of Mitanni. The start of the Late Bronze Age is characterised by the period of massed chariotry.

This range of figures can be used to build armies of the early city-states of Sumer, Syria and Elam;  those of the Akkadian empire and the 3rd Dynasty of Ur; the Amorite kingdoms of Hammurabi's Old Babylonian Empire, Shamsi-Adad I of Assyria and those  of Mari, Eshunna and Larsa.

In addition the range covers the allies and enemies of the city-states, such as Zagros, Taurus, Caucusus & Anatolian Highlanders, and the Desert & Dry-Steppe Nomads. Full armies can also be built using these figures. 

The range will also extend to the Old and Middle Kingdom in Egypt, along with their allies and enemies: the Libyans and Nubians.


Sumerian & Early Syrian City-States

Sumerian & Early Syrian City-States

City-State armies of the Sumerians and early Syrians

Akkadian Empire

Akkadian Empire

The armies of the Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian & Successor States

Neo-Sumerian & Successor States

3rd Dynasty of Ur and Sumerian Successor States such as those of Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and the Kingdom of Sealand.

Early Desert & Dry-Steppe Nomads

Early Desert & Dry-Steppe Nomads

The 'Donkey-Nomad' or Bedouin tribes of the Early and Middle Bronze Age, including Amorites, Amurru, Aamu and Martu

Zagros, Taurus & Anatolian Highlanders

Zagros, Taurus & Anatolian Highlanders

Gutians, Lullubians, Hurrians, Turukkeans, early Kassites, Gasgans and other Highlanders of the Early, Middle & Late Bronze Age

Early Elamite

Early Elamite

Old Period Elamites of the Early & Middle Bronze Age

Amorite Kingdoms

Amorite Kingdoms

The armies of the later Amorite City-States such as those of Hammurabi's Babylonia, early Assyria (Subartu), Mari and Ebla.

Hyksos

Hyksos

Hyksos armies before and after the invasion of Egypt at the end of the Middle Bronze Age.
Early Hittite

Early Hittite

Old & Middle Kingdom Hittite

Old & Middle Kingdom Egyptian

Old & Middle Kingdom Egyptian

The armies of the Old and Middle Kingdom of Egypt, (Early and Middle Bronze Age). The range includes the Nubian tribes from the south and the Libyan tribes in the west.

Early Nubian & Libyan

Armies of the primitive tribes of the Libyans, to the west and the Nubians to the south, of the Old and Middle Kingdom of Egypt, during the Early and Middle Bronze Age.